Security Arrangements
Aug22

Security Arrangements

Two of the boons of the Internet are online trading and online banking. This new online arrangement has saved countless hours for both customers and banks. Online trading with firms like Web Street Securities is a major comfort. However, this has captured the attention of cyber criminals as well. The most common method used by these criminals to get bank account information of the customers is called “phishing.”

Web Street Securities would like to advise their users that phishing is a method of tricking the customer into revealing his user name and password for his online banking account. This is done by the criminal sending emails that attempt to panic the customer into the revealing act. It is similar to the popular sport of fishing, wherein bait is provided to lure the fish into biting it

Advice on Security Arrangements at Online Banking

The phishing email will usually appear to have come from a bank. The receiver may or may not have an account in the bank that is represented. Web St. Securities cautions that the contents would be along the lines of this: bank account details need updating, and it is essential to protect the account by furnishing details. The email will also have a link which will take the reader to a secure area to enter the details. The link will take the reader to a page that looks very much the same as the original bank’s web-page, but in reality, it is a fake.

Web Street Securities, found at http://www.webstreetsecurities.com, requests its readers to be careful not to fall into the phishing trap. The first advice is that banks do not ever send out emails to their customers asking for login details. The user is advised to look at the address. The site of a bank is a secure one, and the address begins with an https in place of the regular http.

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How to Fix Bad Credit

what-to-do-with-bad-creditThere are some proven ways to fix bad credit and dependable credit repair involves more than just sending dispute letters. So be beware. Many repair agencies offer little beyond discussing negative information. The problem with these companies is that they’ll often dispute just about anything. If you ever plan to get a loan for a home or a car then this article is for you.

Why it’s Dangerous to Dispute Valid Information

Of course, you do have the right to discuss anything on your report that you feel inaccurate or incomplete, but disputing something you know is valid can make your problems worse and it can even result in a lawsuit. So why take chances? There is a better, safer approach to improving your credit rating.

Fix Your Credit in 5 Easy Steps

Step One: Make a Budget

Budgeting your money may be one of the most important parts of the repair process. Although it is possible to resolve some of your credit problems without a budget, you’re most likely going to have to start saving money and planning for future expenses. For example, paying off your debts and collection accounts will often require lump sums of money.

Step Two: Analyze Your Credit Report

If you’re going to start the repair process, you’ll need to know exactly what’s listed on your credit report. Every year, you’re entitled to a free copy of your credit report from each one of the three major credit bureaus. A careful examination of your credit report will also reveal potential errors or suspicious information that you may want to have investigated.

Step Three: Make Corrections to Your Credit Report

There are many reasons to have your credit report verified. If you see anything on your report that you feel is inaccurate, it’s probably a good idea to send a verification letter to have it corrected or removed. Even a mistake that seems minor can give you a bad credit score. Checking your report for errors is an essential part of credit repair.

Step Four: Negotiate Debt Settlements

bad-credit-solutionsIf you have been budgeting your income up to this point, reducing your debt and finally paying it off should be relatively straightforward. Collection agencies are often willing to agree to a debt settlement. Debt agreements are the best way to have your debts reduced to an amount you can afford to pay. Be aware that credit repair certainly requires more than making corrections to your credit report. After all, one of the most damaging things to have on your credit is unpaid debt.

Step Five: Establish New Lines of Credit

It’s possible to get approved for new, active lines of credit regardless of your credit history. The moment your finances are under control, your credit report has qualified, and your debt has been paid down, you’ll be in a good position to establish new credit. Creating new lines is credit is one of the very best ways to increase your credit score.

While credit repair may be challenging, it’s very possible–and its rewards are plenty. It is not always the fastest process it will, of course, take some time to correspond with credit bureaus and collection agencies and you’ll probably have to save some money to pay off your debt, but it’s usually a sure and safe process. Following these five steps, you’ll see just how easy it can be to fix bad credit.

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How To Boost Your Credit Score

horrible-credit-scoreA credit score above 660 is considered to be a good score, while a score between 700 and 759 is an awesome score. Anything above 760 is an excellent score. People with excellent credit scores can enjoy a lot of benefits. Firstly, they don’t have to worry about high-interest rates while applying for any credit. Banks will be readily available to provide credit to people who have great scores.

Credit reduce the hassle of worrying about carrying cash, which can often create problems for many individuals, and most of the commercial establishments support credit cards for making payments. Today, you can use your ATM or debit card to make payments for groceries, book your tickets, buys products from internet websites, and even buy automobiles. There are different types of cards available. The major difference is with debit or ATM cards you make payments from your bank account, while in the case of credit cards you make your payments first, and subsequently, pay for the expenses – within a pre-designated period. The main issue with these cards is that they don’t come cheap.

fixing-bad-creditThe following are tips that can help you maintain your good credit:

1. Charge only what you can afford to pay
When you get into the propensity for charging just what you can manage, it lets future creditors and lenders know that you are a responsible borrower. You will think that its simpler to obtain cash and get new credit when you prove that you know how only to borrow what you can pay back.

2. Use only a small amount of the credit you have
Maxing out your credit cards – or even coming close – is one of the most irresponsible ways of using credit. The chances are that you cannot afford to pay off a maxed out credit card balance. Loan specialists realize that borrowers or entrepreneurs who maximize their cards regularly experience issues repaying what they have acquired. Staying beneath half of your credit point of confinement is wise. Start with only one credit card. Many people start by accumulating many credit cards within a couple of years of using credit. Don’t do this. The more credit you have, the more you will end up using.

3. Pay your balance in full and on time
If you are only charging what you can afford to pay, this will not be a problem. By paying your credit monthly it proves that you are able to pay your bills, something lenders and creditors want to see.

4. Carry a balance the right way
Having a credit card balance is not bad as long as you do it the right way. Make more than the minimum payment each month to pay off your loan as fast as possible. Abstain from making late charge card installments.

If you want to improve your credit score so that you can qualify for a better loan, you can use the credit score calculator on any website to work out what the score is. The score can range from 300 upward to around 850 so you can then know if you should pay off a few debts first, and ask your bank for a better interest rate so that your score can improve. The credit score calculator can also help you to save money by showing you how to keep your finances in order. The higher your credit score is, the better the interest rates that you will be offered by your bank on a mortgage.

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Retirement Funds For Small Business Owners And Entrepreneurs
Aug30

Retirement Funds For Small Business Owners And Entrepreneurs

For small business owners and entrepreneurs, it can be very hard to find the best way to plan for the future. Everyone needs to be planning for their future no matter what their occupation if they want to help ensure that they are financially secure during their retirement.
There is no guarantee that investing in any kind of retirement fund or investing at all for retirement will ensure that you are financially sound throughout your retirement. But that doesn’t mean that it is not a good idea. Just speak with the people you trust, see if they have invested in any kind of retirement fund.

Small Business Owners and Entrepreneurs

Investing in a retirement fund is a lot hard when you are a small business owner or entrepreneur just based on the simple fact that there is nothing set up for you. If you look at many of the larger corporations, their employees have options all laid out for them.

They have 401(k)’s and different retirement funds to choose from based on their goals for retirement. On top of that, many large corporations will even contribute a certain amount to these retirement funds based on how much the employee is contributing.

These are all great incentives for employees of larger corporations to start planning for their retirements. I don’t see why someone would not start their own retirement fund with these kind of incentives.

They are great.

At the same time, these are all incentives that an entrepreneur does not have. On top of that, all too often their is a much more risky investment that an entrepreneur could make in his or her own business or in a new business as that is the nature of how their minds work. Situations like these make starting a retirement fund and eliminating credit card debt all that much more difficult.

 

Planning For Your Retirement

If you are a small business owner or an entrepreneur then one of the best things that you can do is visit a local financial planner. Talk to a professional retirement specialist and let them know what you goals are for retirement as well as how much you will be able to contribute to this retirement fund. They can then put together a retirement plan that is customized to your needs. This will give you a better picture of what you will need to be doing in order to help reach your goals for your retirement.

Speak With Other Entrepreneurs

A good way to find out the best route to take as an entrepreneur looking to start investing and planning for your retirement is to network. There are a lot of networking events as well as websites where entrepreneurs can hang out, exchange ideas and learn from each other.

One of the things you can learn is what approach other entrepreneurs are taking in order to plan and save for their retirement. From one entrepreneur to another, they should have no problem sharing that kind of information.

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Why Having A Good Credit Rating Is Important in 2016

credit score fair good poorCredit rating should be the concern of most people. For some, who do not have too many loans, their credit status is still their primary concern, but not to the point that it is bothering their lives. This is the advantage of having a good credit status or rating. On the other hand, those people who have bad credit standing find it so hard to get out of the trouble because it is affecting their lives and sometimes even the lives of their loved ones.

Some people take for granted the concept of credit rating especially if they do not need to have a loan or mortgage in the future but still, the legal actions that many credit card companies might bother them in the future. Moreover, people who have bad credit standing cannot just say that they are not bothered by their credit status because they do not need to loan in the future. They would still suffer the effects as they do some financial transactions in their life. For example, some utility companies would deny the application of someone who has a bad credit status. Some landlords, for example, will investigate the credit standing of their tenants before allowing them to live in his house because they are afraid that they will suffer the same thing like the credit card companies– that they did not receive any payment or the payment was not complete. Credit status is sometimes very hard to control because some credit card companies would impose too much interest on credit cards.

credit repair programSome popular effects of having a bad credit status or rating are; first, the borrower may be denied of getting a new credit. This was the argument presented earlier. Some financial institutions after investigating the credit rating of a borrower and found out that they have bad credit standing, will not approve the request credit of the borrower. Some credit card companies after realizing that a particular borrower has a bad credit rating will impose higher interest rates. Even those companies engaged in car rentals and reservations; investigate a lot on the borrower’s profile before engaging business with them. Moreover, borrowers with bad credit rating are sometimes rejected by employers. Employers are thinking that they are delinquent people, thus, work or tasks cannot be entrusted to them. If you have poor credit, it is important that you consult a professional such as those at creditrepair.com. They can help you navigate the murky roads of credit repair and debt consolidation and ultimately help you get your financial life back on track.

Credit rating is part of someone’s profile. This is like a crime record that will not be deleted into the profile of the borrower. It is better to prevent oneself from having bad credit rating than to suffer from its consequences in the future. Prevention is still better than getting into troubles. By simply being responsible, credit rating will remain good. Hence, responsibility together with doing the obligations will make the life of an individual less complicated.

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The importance of a good business outfit

Business men usually need to adhere to a certain dress code that is expected of them. Normally this outfit comprises of a suit, a shirt and a tie as well as patent leather shoes. This way, one gives a good impression no matter what. In one’s bureau, on a business trip, at the stock exchange or in a restaurant, one’s impression should in no case be underestimated.

Especially when directly dealing with potential client or business partners it is vital to not only look clean and well-dressed and thus follow the dress code but also to display good manners. By behaving politely and courteously one shows one’s trustworthiness and reliability and by doing so increases one’s chances to bring a deal to a conclusion. Furthermore, one should make sure that one’s garments do fit well and are clean. In terms of personal hygiene, men should be clean shaven since a three-day beard gives the impression that one doesn’t care too much about one‘s appearance.

Arriving the stylish way

Often, business meetings do take part in places other than the company building itself but rather in neutral places like restaurants where a specific area is reserved. From the various ways to get there, coming with the company car sure is the most common one. If one wants to leave a lasting impression, however, there is only one choice: getting there with a limousine. A limousine service offers a multitude of advantages while at the same time being just a little more expensive than a taxi, as can be seen on websites like http://www.blacklane.com/en. Some of the advantages are the following:

Modern cars: Limousine services offer some of the best cars in the world so everyone can find and book exactly the car that is desired. Depending on the number of people who are going to be transported there are a couple of different car models available differing in terms of size and storage space.

Experienced and discreet drivers: Drivers with long experience in driving and absolute discretion guarantee a fast and reliable ride.

Space and comfort: Large leeway allows for much comfort during the ride and even enables the passenger to do some work in the car. Browsing through one’s papers once more right before a meeting as well as making phone calls can easily be done.

All in all, it is important to envision that one’s appearance is s factor not to be underestimated in the success or failure in the business world. Making oneself clear the o

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Tips for welcoming a business partner

A network of contacts is everything in today’s business world. Knowing people and therefore increasing one’s chances of making interesting and profitable deals is often worth more than money itself. In order to come to terms with one’s business partner, it is vital to leave a good impression on him and stay in contact.

This is especially true when it comes to foreign clients and partners since it is often the case that one doesn’t speak the same language. In such a situation it is more important than ever to keep in mind intercultural differences and show one’s good manners.
Foremost if the client comes to a meeting or for the signing of a contract it is important to welcome him and make his stay as comfortable as possible. Not only is this a question of good manners but the more comfortable a client or partner feels the better the chances for a successful business deal.

The arrival: limousine service is already waiting

It is a good idea to already offer one’s guest the best service when he has just arrived. Hiring a limousine service like the BlackLane Limousine Service is a good way to show one’s guest that one cares about his well-being. Modern cars and much room for one’s comfort as well as experienced and discreet driversmake sure that the drive to the hotel is nothing but comfortable. Also, the driver can act as a kind of guide and tell the passenger a bit about the town if he is interested.
Next, one should have booked a room in a good hotel that should be too far away from the meeting point. Most of the time, the latter will either be the company building itself or a neutral spot like a restaurant, for example. Showing good manners, and being dressed in an appropriate way will help to bring the business talking to a successful and. Later on, one can have a drink and make a toast to the agreement and afterwards have the limousine get one’s client home.

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Bonds

What To Look For

Bonds represent debt. A bond holder is someone who has been promised a sum of money that he or she initially invested, plus interest over a certain period of time. The bond certificate is a guarantee of return after the time period is up. Stocks, on the other hand, are different. They represent equity ownership rather than lent debt.

When Are Bonds Better?

Bonds usually have superiority over stocks. In the case of bankruptcy, shareholders usually lose their entire investment. Debt-holders or creditors can hope to get some of their money back when they hold bonds. Therefore, investing in bonds or debts is considered safer than investing in securities or equity.

Bonds from the US government are the most risk-free. They are called Treasury Bonds. Bonds issued by a stable government are the best bet when the goal is capital preservation. Capital preservation usually means never losing the principal investment. However, not all bonds are totally safe. There are some bonds, such as junk bonds, that are quite risky.

In the long run, stocks usually outperform bonds. However, in times of economic crisis, when the value of stocks is down, bonds outperform stocks. Stocks, over a year, often lose a percentage of their value. Therefore, if a portfolio contains bonds as well as stocks, they can help to stabilize the portfolio during a recession.

For retirees, bonds are a surer option for security and predictability. By owning bonds, retirees are able to predict their future income to a greater degree of certainty. Those who are farther away from retirement have a greater chance of making up from losses in periods of equity decline.

Bonds usually give more returns than banks in terms of interest rates. Therefore, savings that are not immediately needed will be better off placed in bonds. They will earn greater interest, without much risk. Saving up for college is also another great option that bonds provide.

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Stocks

What Are Stocks And Stock Market

Publicly-traded companies give out part ownership of their company in basic units called stocks. Stocks must be purchased by individuals to gain ownership of part of the company. Upon purchase, the individual becomes a shareholder of the company. Thereafter, any gain or loss made by the company is reflected in the dividend paid out by the company to its shareholders.

The stock market is a place where investment and trading in stocks and other securities can be carried out. To invest in stocks, a fundamental knowledge of stocks, their different types, and the basic nature of the market where stocks are traded is essential.

There are different types of stocks, including float, outstanding, restricted, unissued or authorized stocks. Each has different attributes, and investors need to be familiar with these terms to make intelligent decisions. To trade in stocks is risky if undertaken without a clear understanding of what stocks are and how they are traded.

Diversify To Prosper

It is usually not a good idea to put all eggs into one basket– that is to say, do not buy stocks of only one company. Diversification of stocks will reduce the risk in the portfolio, by balancing the under-performers with those that are doing comparatively well. However, diversification works better if done correctly. It can reduce volatility and improve overall performance of the portfolio.

Investors classify stocks with the type of business. For example, companies of similar industries are pooled together, called sectors. The idea is that stocks of companies or industries that are producing similar goods will fare in a similar way in the marketplace. Diversification, therefore, is essentially buying shares in industries that are different from each other.

However, like in games and war, investing is about defense and offense. Different tactics can be used to find success. Investment in cyclical and non-cyclical shares can be one such tactic.

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How Do You Trade In Commodities

Commodities are basic goods that can be exchanged with other goods of the same type. Traditional examples of commodities include gold, oil, natural gases, livestock and agricultural goods. Nowadays, fiscal goods such as foreign currencies and indexes are also treated as commodities for trade. Advancements in technology have brought some new types of commodities in the market, such as cell phone bandwidth and minutes.

Compared to electronic goods that vary from one manufacturer to another, commodities are more or less the same anywhere in the world. Gold of a certain grade of purity will be the same, wherever it may have been mined. The purchase and sale of commodities are carried out through futures trading. Futures’ trading is done in exchanges that standardize the minimum quality and the quantity of the commodity being traded.

Why Trade In Commodities?

Futures’ trading is a financial contract that a seller and a buyer enter into. The two parties agree to engage in a transaction over a set of physical commodities for future delivery at a particular price. This is basically agreeing to buy and/or sell something, which has not yet been produced, for a fixed price. However, buying futures does not necessarily mean that you have to take delivery of a huge physical inventory of the commodity.

Buyers and sellers usually enter into futures contracts to speculate and hedge risks rather than exchange physical goods. Therefore, apart from consumers and producers, there will also be speculators that deal with futures and commodities as financial instruments. The investment world treats the futures market as a major financial hub.

The futures market provides an opportunity for aggressive competition among buyers and sellers. It also provides a platform for managing price risks. Although the commodities market is extremely risky, complex and liquid in nature, it can be used to trade for profit, once the ropes are mastered.

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Credit Card

A Facility Called Credit Card

A small plastic card that can be used to buy products and services is called a credit card. It is used as a system of payment in which the user promises that he will repay the issuer of the card for the charges he accumulates. The institution issuing the card generates a credit line for the user. This is usually a rotating account. The user can borrow from this account to make payments or use as cash advance.

The credit card is different from a debit card. A debit card can be used like currency by the owner. The debit card is usually linked to a bank account, from which the amount transacted is automatically deducted. The credit card, however, does not need to be linked to a bank account. It is instead linked to a credit facility, and the debt has to be repaid as per the terms.

Credit cards are usually issued by credit unions or banks. After the application for a card has been approved by the bank or the credit union, the user can start using the card to make purchases at places where it is accepted.

How To Use A Credit Card?

Most credit cards have a magnetic strip or an embedded chip which provides information about the validity of the card and how much credit the card has. Verification is carried out at the point-of sale or a credit card payment terminal. These terminals will have a communication link with the merchant’s acquiring bank.

The credit card user will receive a monthly statement from the issuer, showing the purchases initiated that month with the card, any payments made towards the card by the user, other outstanding fees, and interest charged. The issuer will also indicate a minimal amount due which is to be paid within a certain date. The user has the option to pay the minimum amount or any other amount up to the maximum amount charged.

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How To Secure A Mortgage Loan

A mortgage or a mortgage loan is a loan secured by pledging a real estate company for a homeowner. The deed or note that records the terms and conditions of the deal is called the mortgage note. The word mortgage is used synonymously for mortgage loan.

A person in need of financial help can secure a loan against property from a bank or a financial institute. The various characteristics of mortgage loans such as the loan amount, maturity date, interest rate, method of payment, etc. can vary to a large extent between banks and institutes.

What Constitutes A Mortgage Loan?

Depending on the location and legal requirements, the terms and conditions of the mortgage may vary somewhat. However, some of the factors common to all mortgages are the interest rate, the terms of the mortgage, payment amount and period of time.

Interest rates may be high or low, depending on several factors; these can include geographical location. The rate may be fixed for life, or it may vary, changing at certain predefined periods. Dedicated monthly installments are also common.

A mortgage term will usually have a maximum term. This is a period after which the loan must be repaid in full. In certain cases, an amortizing loan will need to be paid after the term.

The amount to be paid per period and the frequency of the periods may be fixed or variable. In case of equated monthly installments, the installment amount is made up in part by the principal to be repaid and in part by the interest. At the start of the payments, the interest is heavier, with a lower amount of the principal repaid. This ratio undergoes a change and at the end of the term, when a majority of the principal has been paid back, the interest amount gradually decreases. The total sum of the two, however, is kept constant throughout the term.

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What Is A Venture Capital

High potential-growth companies may get financial funding for their initial start-up through venture capital funds. Venture capital funds own equity in the company they have invested in. Venture capitalists usually invest in companies possessing a novel business model or a new technology in modern technological industries, including software, information technology, biotechnology, and so on.

However, venture capital funding is not reserved for high-end technology industries alone. There are several cases of venture capital funding being made available for low-technology firms that are of an innovative nature. Technologies of this nature are mainly developed by the local population and are useful in their rural areas. Examples of such funding schemes are solar/bicycle charged LED lanterns useful in the hilly areas of Nepal and motorized boats made from recycled motor-parts in the Sundarbans area of West Bengal in India.

How Is Venture Capital Funding Done?

There are generally two stages to venture capital funding. The first stage is the seed funding where the funds are given for the basic start-up of the company. The second stage is the growth-funding round. The second round is usually done in the interests of generating a refund. This could take place through an Initial Public Offering or a trade sale of the company.

New companies, which do not have a significant operative history, usually face difficulties in trying to secure bank loans. Because of their small size, they are also unable to raise capital in the public markets. For these companies, seed funding is key investment that helps get their idea moving; venture capital funds are great options for small businesses.

Against the high risk that venture capitalists take in funding new, small and less mature companies, venture capitalists usually get a high degree of control over the company decisions. This is in addition to the portion of the company’s ownership and its subsequent value that is also quite significant.

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The London Stock Exchange

The fourth-largest stock exchange in the world is located in the city of London, in the United Kingdom. This stock exchange is the London Stock Exchange, and it is part of the London Stock Exchange Group. Founded in 1801, its current location is the Paternoster Square, near St. Paul’s Cathedral.

London began trading in shares around 1688. This was when the East India Company wanted to reach India and the Far East, but was unable to finance the voyage privately. The company raised capital by selling shares to merchants. The merchants got rights to a portion of the profits made by the East India Company.

Setbacks And Merger Attempts

One of the earliest setbacks for the London Stock Exchange was caused by the South Sea Company. The company’s owners and the British government had set up the unprofitable company, and it was running up huge debts. In 1720, they wanted to wipe out the debts by offering shares to the public.

The shares picked up in momentum, and soon began selling at high prices. The bubble did not last, and finally, the share prices plummeted. The public outcry that followed forced the government to formulate legislation to prevent further misuse. Recovery for the London Stock Exchange took a long time.

Since 2005, several attempts have been made to acquire the ownership of London Stock Exchangethrough buying up its shares. The first attempt was a takeover bid by the Macquarie Bank. This was thwarted by shareholders. The second attempt was by NASDAQ, which tried for a year or more before finally giving up its unsuccessful attempt.

In 2011, the London Stock Exchange Group announced their intentions of merging with the owners of the Toronto Stock Exchange. The Toronto Stock Exchange is run by the Toronto based TMX Group. The arrangement is such that the new, enlarged group will have the TMX Chief as the firm’s president. The new company will be headed by the current CEO of the LSE group.

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The New York Stock Exchange

Located at 11 Wall Street, in lower Manhattan, New York City stands the world’s largest stock exchange. This is the New York Stock Exchange, also called the NYSE.

In 2007, the NYSE integrated with the Euronext, the fully electronic stock exchange. It is the NYSE Euronext that runs the New York Stock Exchange today. The trading area of the NYSE is comprised of four rooms, located at 11 Wall Street. In 1978, the 11 Wall Street building was declared a National Historic Landmark.

On the trading floor of the New York Stock exchange, buyers and sellers trade shares of stock in companies which are registered for public trading. The trading hours of the NYSE are between 9:30AM and 4:00PM ET, Monday through Friday. Holidays are declared in advance by the exchange.

Traders execute stock exchanges on the trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange in a continuous auction format. A specialist broker usually acts as an auctioneer. He is not employed by the New York Stock Exchange, but is an employee of an NYSE member firm. He manages the actual auction to bring the buyers and sellers together in an open outcry auction market environment.

Modernization Of The NYSE

In 1995, an automation drive was started in the NYSE. The 203-year-old traditional method of transacting through paper ended. The automated trading empowered traders to receive and carry out orders electronically. Wireless transmissions now disseminate information to traders via hand-held computers.

Since January 2007, customers are able to send their orders for trade electronically via the NYSE electronic Hybrid Market. They can send their orders for immediate execution or for trade in the auction market. The popularity of the electronic method can be gauged from the fact that in the first three months of 2007, order volumes delivered electronically exceeded 87 percent of the total orders.

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The Tokyo Stock Exchange

The third largest stock exchange of the world is situated at 2-1 Nihobashi-Kabutocho, Chuo and Tokyo. Established in 1878, in short it is called the Tosho or the TSE. The Tokyo Stock Exchange operates from 9AM to 11AM and again from 12:30 to 3PM.

The Tokyo Stock Exchange went electronic for trading of all transactions in 1999. Until 2001, the TSE was working as an incorporated association, with its members as its shareholders. In 2001, it was restructured as a stock company.

In Japan, the Tokyo Stock Exchange is the largest market. JASDAQ, the Japanese version of NASDAQ in US, is also part of this market. The TSE carries out nearly 90 percent of the trades in Japan. TSE stocks can be traded using CORES or FORES. FORES is the Floor Order Routing and Execution System. It deals with 150 of the most-traded stocks. The rest are handled by CORES or Computer Assisted Routing and Execution System.

The Measuring Index

For tracking the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the main indexes are the Nikkei 225 and the TOPIX. Japan’s largest newspaper, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, selects some companies, whose index is calculated as the Nikkei. This is a price-weighted average. For Asian stocks, Nikkei is the most-watched index. The First Section listed companies and the J30 index of large industrial companies are measured as TOPIX. According to the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the most appropriate benchmark is the TOPIX for evaluating portfolio management.

In 2005, the newly-installed transaction systems at the Tokyo Stock Exchange malfunctioned, causing the TSE to operate for only 90 minutes in the month of November. The same year, a month later, a simple typing error caused a net loss of nearly 7 million US dollars. Another incident, again after a month, caused the stock exchange to close early, because they had exceeded their daily quota of 4.5 million trades per day.

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